Amplified sound may not be appropriate for all events or occasions. When it is necessary, having an adequate and well-run sound system can be as important to the success of an event as the music or the calling. This article discusses how to get started with sound gear for your event.


Before you begin thinking about a sound system, ask yourself if you need amplification for your type of dance or music and in your location. At a contra dance the noise of the dancers almost always makes a sound system necessary. At an English dance you might not need amplification, or you might need only a slight boost for the caller. For other types of events, consider the likely noise of the crowd, the participants, the volume of the performers, and the need for clarity of any teaching or prompting. Will you be amplifying a whole band plus caller? Just a caller? How many instruments? How big is the space? How many participants/attendees/dancers do you expect? This information will help anyone you talk with figure out what gear you might need. When in doubt, ask performers, teachers or leaders what they think they need, and respect their requests. Try to find a balance point where you meet your needs for amplification with the minimal amount of sound gear and the simplest setup. It never hurts to familiarize yourself with a bit of terminology (see Bob Mills' All Mixed Up) so you know what to ask for.


If you do need sound gear, don't start by running out and buying a really expensive system. Here are a few ideas for cheaper options.

Ask around with musicians and callers in your area. See if anyone has a sound system they are willing to let you borrow or rent. Go to a music store, a guitar center, or an electronics store and look around to see what they have. This will help you get an idea about the different components and the different sizes that are available. Contact a professional sound operator in your area and ask if they can make suggestions about finding gear to rent or borrow. If you are looking to buy something, you can often find used equipment available at a reasonable price. Check online, ask performers, check with professional sound people about any old gear they are looking to sell. Some organizations own sound systems, and some buildings include built-in systems that you may be able to rent or use. If you are on a campus the school probably owns some gear that you can check out or rent.


If you decide a sound system is necessary, it is important to have a qualified person to operate the equipment and to have good communication with the performers about sound arrangements. There are a lot of approaches to how to make this work:

  • Cultivate a team of sound volunteers in your community. Help them get training, starting with Bob Mills' All Mixed Up and give them time to try things out without an audience around. Encourage them to solicit suggestions from performers, who may know more than they do about sound systems. Organize a sound operators workshop, or send your sound volunteers to a CDSS summer camp Sound Operators Course. Over time you can develop a competent group to take care of the sound for your event. (This sort of arrangement works best for weekly, monthly or occasional events with one band and simple needs)
  • Ask performers to provide sound. many performers have a lot of experience doing sound, some of them own their own gear, and some prefer to operate their own systems. Be prepared to pay them extra for doing this. Budget $50 at a minimum for sound. (Works well for occasional events or regular events with only one band and simple to moderate needs)
  • Hire a professional sound person with their own gear, or one who can operate your gear, or some combination of the two (the best option for weekends, camps, difficult spaces, events with more than one band)


Whatever you choose to do about sound, be sure of several things:

  • Communicate with the performers ahead of time about their sound requirements. Ask them to send you (or the sound person) a stage plot or a list of the channels, cables, mics, DIs, monitors, monitor mixes, etc. that they require.
  • Be clear whether you are providing any instruments (esp. piano or keyboard, bass, bass amps, etc.) or whether you are expecting the performers to bring them
  • Leave enough time before the start of the event for setup and a sound check, and tell the performers what time they need to be there


The best basic text for learning to operate sound gear in a folk or traditional music or dance setting is "All Mixed Up" by Bob Mills, available online or in print from the CDSS Catalog.

Here are a few ideas about how to get started with publicity:



Most newspapers publish events calendars and most local radio stations broadcast listings of events in their listening area. Inclusion in these listings is usually free, provided the event is open to the public and put on by a not-for-profit entity (most participatory dance and music events fall into this category). To have your event included, you need to write a press release and send it to the station or paper in time to meet their publication deadlines. This can be a great way to reach a wide audience with an announcement of your event. Here's how to do it.

Develop a mailing list of media outlets

Newspapers and Magazines: Look for publications in your area, including arts/culture weeklies, the local newspaper, smaller independent papers, and local or regional cultural magazines. Find an email address for each where you can submit calendar listings. Usually an email address will be listed somewhere on the publications' web site, but you may need to call and ask specifically for their guidelines on submission. Find out the deadline for submissions, how far in advance they like to receive them, and whether they accept photos as email attachments.

Radio and TV Stations: Look for radio stations in your area, especially public radio, college radio, and community radio stations. Find an email address on the station's web site for submitting Public Service Announcements (PSAs) or calendar listings. If the station has a folk music, world music, or other relevant show, contact the host of that show to ask if s/he has an event calendar. Again, you may need to call the station to ask about submission deadlines.

Compile the email addresses into a list so you can easily send your press release to all of them at once.

Writing the press release

A press release should be short and to the point while conveying relevant information about the event. The first one or two sentences should answer the very basic questions: what, where, when, who. Additional sentences can describe the event in more detail, provide brief directions, and encourage beginners to attend. The last sentence should tell people what to do to learn more, with email, web and phone contact information. Two paragraphs is a good target length for a regular (monthly/weekly) event; longer may be appropriate for a special event (ball, weekend, etc.) You can also include media contact information (who the paper/station should get in touch with if they have any questions) at the end of the email.

This sample shows how to write a press release for radio or newspapers.

Date: May 1, 2008
Subject: Announcing: Contra Dance in Walpole Saturday May 17


WALPOLE, NH; On Saturday May 17 the Walpole Contra Dance will feature music by Van Kaynor and Ethan Hazzard-Watkins on fiddles, with Ann Percival on piano, guitar and ukelele. Ralph Sweet will call contras and squares for the dance. The dance will take place at the Walpole Town Hall, located next to the common in Walpole, NH. Ralph Sweet will teach a beginners' dance workshop at 7:30 p.m., and the dance will run from 8:00 to 11:30 p.m.

Contra dancing is an easy, fun, accessible social activity that is open to anyone; no experience is necessary and all dances will be taught. For more information or directions, please visit the Walpole Dance website at, call 123-456-7890 or email

Print quality photos of the band are available at:
Print quality photos of the caller are available at:

Media Contact:
Ethan Hazzard-Watkins

Newspapers may publish photos of the performers or of the dance style if they are available, but DON'T EMAIL ATTACHMENTS unless you have confirmed that they can and will receive them. You can opt to provide links to a location online where high resolution print quality photos can be downloaded. Feel free to include flowery prose about the wonderful performers if you want, but be aware that most of it may be edited out by the paper or radio station.

Putting it All Together - Timing and Followup

Once you have your mailing list assembled and your press release written, figure out the most appropriate time frame for sending publicity emails depending on everyone's deadlines. You may need to do several batches, for example radio stations and monthly publications one month ahead, weekly or daily publications two weeks ahead. Send it all off, and double check that the papers actually publish your listing. If they don't, follow up with a phone call to see what went wrong.


One very effective way to publicize an event is with a good email list. With an email list, people who have shown an interest in your event can be reminded about when and where it is happening (is it the Third Saturday already!?), who is performing, and anything special that might be happening this time around. This is a good way to ensure the regulars have all the necessary information, and also to encourage beginners to return for their second and third times. 

Compile Your List

Ask people who attend your event if they want to sign up to be notified by email about upcoming events. Some organizers walk through the crowd at the break and sign people up; others specifically approach newcomers and ask if they'd like to know about the next event. Make plugging the email list a part of your announcements. Ask people as they pay at the door to sign up on the email list. Some communities maintain listservs (such as a Yahoo Groups email list); if you do this, be clear about the purpose of the list and your policies for Off-topic posts, email conversation vs. announcements, etc. I recommend keeping discussion lists separate from announcement lists, so people don't tune out your important info.

The Announcement

Send one email per event with the pertinent details. Your email can be less formal than a press release, with a personal touch or a bit of humor, but as with a press release, be brief and concise and include all the necessary information, including a link to a web site with directions as well as who to contact for more information.

This sample shows how to write a publicity email for your email list.

Date: May 1, 2008
Bcc: [your recipients list]
Subject: Announcing: Contra Dance in Walpole Saturday May 17

Hello Walpole Dancers,

It's time again for the Walpole contra dance, this Saturday May 17. We are excited to have Ralph Sweet calling contras and classic singing squares this month, with a great band to back him up. Here are the details:

Saturday May 17
Contra Dance in Walpole, NH
8:00 - 11:30 PM dancing
7:30 PM Beginners' workshop

Ralph Sweet, calling
Ethan Hazzard-Watkins, fiddle
Van Kaynor, fiddle
Ann Percival, piano/guitar/ukelele/harmony vocals

Admission: $8, or $6 for students, seniors and first time dancers
At the Town Hall, next to the Common in Walpole, NH
For directions and more information visit, email or call 123-456-7890.
I hope you can make it!

This email was sent to [email address] from [your name] ( because you requested to receive information about the Walpole Contra Dance series. If you would like to be removed from this list please reply and let me know.

WARNING: you can get in a lot of trouble by sending out anonymous, unsolicited or bulk email to people who don't want it. If your recipients repeatedly mark your messages as SPAM, you can lose your email account or cause your internet service provider to be blacklisted. Be very careful only to send announcements to people who have requested to receive them or to those you know personally. Do not share your email list with other people or organizations. Do not forward other people's announcements to your list. Take people off your list if they request to be removed. Do not put all the email addresses in the To: or Cc: field; this will allow their addresses to be visible to everyone who receives the email. Instead, use the Bcc: field (blind carbon copy). This will protect the identity of the list members. Alternatively, use a bulk emailer software such as Direct Mail (for Macs) to maintain your email list and write messages. Finally, make sure to include a statement about how to request to be removed from the list.


There are countless ways to use the web to promote your events, and new tools are being invented every day. You don't need to be a programmer to take advantage of these services; there are many tools that allow anyone to create a web site, or contribute to a calendar of events.

Building Your Own Website

Building your own website can be simple — use WordPress or Squarespace or Weebly — or, if you have volunteer web designer/developers in your group, make your own. Keep the Home Page minimalist: Who, Where, When, plus a great picture of people having fun dancing (or singing, or playing music!). You'll need a What to Expect if You've Never Done This Before section somewhere. And don't forget contact information.

Places to List Events Online

Facebook and other social networking sites have tools for inviting friends and people in certain groups and networks to relevant events. You can set up a Facebook Group (for conversation and sharing) or a Facebook Page (for telling about your group and announcing upcoming events.)

Meetup has been an extremely useful tool for groups who are just starting out, or who wish to attract new dancers. You may get a revolving influx of new, inexperienced dancers using Meetup, so make sure your callers know how to handle a community-style dance, and that your experienced dancers are skilled at welcoming and assisting new people.

Ted Crane's Dance Database the Dance Gypsy and each list regular dances and performers; local and regional folk music societies and dance organizations maintain lists of regular and special events. Search online to find the most relevant sites in your area. 

Public radio stations have online events calendars; there are town, city, state, and region-focused listings.

Craigslist has events postings.



Here are some great ideas for posters:

  • Bryn Mawr Folk Club: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
  • Brown Contra Dance: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8
  • Wesleyan Contra Dance: 1 | 2 | 3


It is likely that there are musicians and callers in your local community who would be excited to support your event. Here are some ideas for how to find them.

  • Search online for something like "[your town] Contra dance" or "[your state] English dance" and you'll probably find a fairly local dance group that runs regular events. They exist in every state. If you don't find them in a search engine, look at Ted Crane's Dance Database, or the Dance Gypsy, both of which have searchable lists of events, groups and performers.
  • Get in touch with the organizers of your local group and ask them if they know of musicians and callers who might be interested to help support a new event. Emphasize that you want people who are charismatic, fun, and good with beginners.
  • If you know musicians, callers, or organizers in other parts of the country, ask for their suggestions about people you should contact locally. The traditional dance and music scene is very well connected all over the country and in Canada.
  • If none of this works, get in touch with CDSS and we can help refer you to someone near you (a CDSS member or affiliate organization) who can probably help.
  • Once you have identified performers you want to hire, contact them and ask if they are interested to play or call for your event. Take a look at this general information on band/caller relations. If you expect to be able to pay performers, let them know. If you don't plan to or don't know what the pay will be as you start out, explain that and ask if the performers are willing to donate their services in support of getting more beginners and young folks involved in traditional dance and music.
  • If you are working on a college campus or in a school, it's great to work to develop student performers


Here are some guidelines for organizers about how to hire bands and callers for your event.

With clear communication and an understanding of performers' and organizers' perspectives, booking can be a straightforward process which lays the groundwork for a successful event. On the other hand, poor communication and divergent expectations can leave a bitter taste in everyone's mouth. To put it another way, performers who feel respected, appreciated, and at ease will do a better job playing, calling, or leading your event, which makes everyone more happy.

Editorial Note: Ethan Hazzard-Watkins wrote this article with input from various people who are both performers and organizers. He has tried to provide some general information that will be widely applicable, as well as my his own opinions about which models he prefesr. The aim is to provide thoughts about what benefits and pitfalls you might encounter with different approaches.


When you are looking to hire someone to play, call, or teach for your event, first you need to identify who you'd like to ask. Information about finding performers in your area is available here, and suggestions about matching performer talents to your needs are below. Assemble a list of performers who fit your needs and then call or email them to get the ball rolling. In your initial contact introduce yourself, explain your role in your group, include a basic description of your event or group and what you are asking performers to do, list the date(s) and times of the event(s) in question, and provide some information about financial arrangements. The rest of this page describes in more detail how to sort all this stuff out.


There are several different models for booking performers:

  1. Broadcast: Email all the performers you know with the available date(s), find out who is available when, and then piece it all together. This works best for a series, such as a weekly dance, where different combinations of people play together each week. It creates a lot of work for the organizer to put everything together, and assumes that 1) anyone in your performer group is pretty much happy working with anyone else, and 2) the organizer knows a good deal about each performer's strengths, weaknesses, and preferences. I don't recommend this approach for a single event, because only one of the many people you contact is actually going to get the gig, and the others will feel like you offered it to them and then took it away.
  2. Go down the list: Identify your top choices for performers, and ask them one at a time if they are available and willing to do the gig for what you are paying.
  3. Sub-contract: Ask one performer to put together a combination for a given event. Tell them the budget they have to work with and any other pertinent info, and give them the freedom to assemble a group they will enjoy.

For most situations option 2 or 3 is best. These methods make performers feel like you are excited about their specific skills and artistic vision, rather than simply looking for whoever can get the job done cheapest or whoever responds first. Whatever your approach, make clear in your intial contact whether you are approaching several bands to find out about availability or talking with one band at a time. Make clear whether you are definitely offering the gig, or just getting information about availability and cost. It's frustrating to think you're being offered a gig (and turning down other work for that same date) and then finding out someone else was hired.

For a dance event, give some consideration to whether bands and callers match in order to allow both to do their best. Don't pair a caller who always does singing squares with a band that's never heard of them; don't pair an old time band with a caller who does a lot of New England Chestnuts; don't pair a caller who does a lot of southern squares with a band that only plays only northern tunes. If you have a caller or band already booked, solicit their input about their favorite people to work with.

If your event is run by committee designate one person to be in contact with the performers, and if possible empower that person to make decisions about pay ranges and hiring. Before you make contact with performers discuss as a committee what you are planning to pay, whether you can pay more if performers ask for it, what performers you want to hire, etc. It is awfully confusing to deal with several different people from an event, or to have one person who really wants your band contact you before being authorized to do so by the group. Performers usually don't want to be involved in internal Committee politics.

However you do it, don't take too long. If performers are holding dates for you it may cost them other potential work, or if they accept other engagements they may no longer be available by the time you figure everything out.


Here are two approaches to negotiating pay:

  1. offer what you know you can afford
  2. ask performers what they usually charge

With option 1, performers can say "yes" and you're all set; they can say "no" and you can try someone else; or they can say "that's not enough, how about $X?" and you can negotiate from there.

If you go with option 2, be clear whether you are considering other bands, and, if so, whether price is an issue in your decision. I don't enjoy being put in this position, but if you are asking performers to bid against each other tell them that up front. Then they can respond accordingly.

If your offer is really all you can afford, that gives the performer the opportunity to accept or decline. If you can be flexible, work with the performer to find a fee that everyone feels happy with. It is in everyone's best interest to arrive at a price that makes the performer feel appreciated and adequately compensated, while staying within the budget for the event and making the organizers feel like they are getting a good deal for their money. Some performers have a set fee for a certain kind of event, and in that case the negotiation can be cut and dried. Either you can offer that or you can't. Others don't have a set fee for events, and the decision about whether to accept the gig for a certain amount of pay includes issues like: will we sell a lot of CDs? how easy/difficult is it to get there? will the event provide exposure for us in a new area, or an area where we are likely to get other gigs in the future? is there the potential for a bonus in the event of good attendance? can we plan some other gigs on the same trip to make more money? how fun will the event be? does it look really good on our resume?

Keep in mind that performers will be thinking in terms of pay per person, rather than the overall cost for the entire group. If you are an event with a smaller budget, look for two- or three-piece combos, or ask if a larger band can appear in a scaled down version.


There are lots of ways to structure the way that performers get paid for your event or series. Here are several common methods:

  • Shares: The proceeds at the door on a given evening are split evenly amongst the performers after covering basic expenses like rent, sound, publicity, etc. A simple formula would look like: (Gross receipts - fixed expenses) / # of performers = 1 share This means performers benefit from large attendance, and share the risk of a small attendance.
  • Fixed Pay: The pay is the same per performer regardless of attendance and is set ahead of time. This is common for special events like parties or weddings, events at schools, and some dance series. It makes the finances predictable, and puts the risk of small attendance entirely on the organizers. It doesn't allow performers to benefit if they draw a large crowd. 
  • Something complicated: If your event has a lot of overhead that is not connected to a specific event (insurance costs, publicity, sound system purchase, etc.), if you keep a reserve of funds that you contribute to or draw from depending on the attendance on a given night, or if you have other financial issues to account for, your payment formula might get much more complicated. See below for a sample formula.

Here are some other things to consider:

  • Guarantee: Most events offer a minimum guaranteed pay per person for performers. This respects the fact that performers do the same amount of work regardless of how many people show up. This is especially important if the performers are traveling a long way. Make sure if you offer a guarantee that you know where the money is coming from in the event of a very small attendance - either you have a reserve of funds to cover it, or the organizer(s) will have to foot the bill.
  • Travel: Some one night events offer additional travel compensation as a flat rate per vehicle or based on distance traveled.
  • Equal or unequal shares: Most events offer equal shares to all performers. Some events pay callers a bit more if the band is large (five or more people). Very rarely there are other arrangements about unequal shares.
  • Communicate! Whatever your arrangement, be very clear ahead of time about how the proceeds will be split. When you contact performers, let them know 1) your guarantee, if any, and 2) your average share for recent dances. This gives them information both about the minimum they can expect and a more likely scenario given average attendance. If you have a cap on performer pay, if you take a substantial cut for the organizers or for the rainy day fund, if you allocate pay unequally, or have any other unusual arrangement, be very clear about that in your communication with performers. You don't need to have a contract, but if you choose to write one for your event make sure all of this information is clearly stated.

Here is the formula for a large contra dance as described in the performer contract:

"Effective April 27, 2007, admission fees go up to $9. For bands with 4 members or fewer, the caller and musicians equally split $3.69 per paid admission and are guaranteed a minimum of $100 each. When the band has 5 or more members, the caller receives 1/5 of $3.69 per paid admission and is guaranteed a minimum of $100; the band members split the remaining 4/5 of $3.69 per paid admission and the band as a whole is guaranteed a minimum of $400. Lately our dances have been averaging about 200-250 dancers."

In this scenario, the organizing committee takes $5.31 per paid admission, which covers their costs for rent, sound, publicity, etc. and pays the remainder as equal shares to the performers, unless the band is large, in which case the caller gets a little extra.

If you are unsure about what arrangements are common in your area, ask performers and organizers what they commonly expect. Ask to see samples of contracts from other events, and then decide what will work best for you.


As a guideline, think about $500 or more per person plus full travel reimbursement (airfare, mileage to and from the airport, parking, and pickup/drop off on your end) for top performers for a dance weekend. If you are not paying everyone the same amount for a similar amount of work at an event, have a good reason for doing so (famous out of town band vs. up-and-coming local band), and be up front about it. No one likes to find out later that they are making a lot less money for equal work. You can also have different gradations of staff positions for people doing more or less work, or people with less experience or name recognition. Some options include full-staff (full pay), half-staff (less pay), or scholarship (free or reduced admission).

Consider including a profit sharing clause in the contract which stipulates if/when you might pay performers a bonus. If your event fills up and you have a surplus of funds, it's nice to share that with performers.

Some weekends or festivals encourage performers to seek other gigs in the area during the same trip, and others forbid this in their contracts. Performers may consider the possibility of other income during the same trip when deciding about the gig. If you have a preference one way or the other, state this up front. If you discourage other work in the area, make sure you are paying enough that the weekend itself is worth it.

If you offer other forms of compensation (a discounted rate for performer's spouse/guest/significant other, daily massages, free beer, whatever) let the performers know about it in your negotiations and include that in your contract.


Read about crafting a vision for your event. Hiring the right performers is one of the tools at your disposal to help make your vision a reality. Make sure that you identify performers with appropriate skills to do the things that are important to you, and with an artistic approach that matches your ideas for the event. For example, if welcoming beginners is important to you, make sure you hire callers or teachers who are sensitive to that and willing to adjust their programming accordingly.

It is important to communicate your vision for an event to performers early on, preferably in your initial contact. Describe your goals and tastes, and ask if performers will feel good about being involved. Then you can collaborate to plan an event that will both highlight performers talents and fulfill your goals.


Communicating with performers about sound system needs and sound procedures is an important part of a successful event. More info here.


  • How to write a contract (from David Casserly)
  • Lisa Greenleaf's article "Hiring Dance Camp Staff - Guidelines for Organizers" (from CDSS News, Sep/Oct 08)
  • Carol Ormand's article "Gigs from Heaven" (from CDSS News, Sep/Oct 08)


This guide about how to write write contracts for performers comes from David Casserly, Oberlin alum and Harvard Law School student. It focuses on college groups, but can also apply to other groups writing contracts. This guide is not meant to constitute legal advice from CDSS or from David; if you want that, consult a real lawyer.

A contract is a legally binding promise. I personally think it's a good idea to write a contract for every performer that comes to campus. Here are a few things that need to be included in contracts. Keep in mind that each school might have particular requirements for any contract that an agent of that school will sign; Oberlin's student union had to OK every contract by a student organization, and I would imagine most schools have similar processes. Anyways, contracts should have:

  • Write "Contract" at the top
  • Name and address of the performer, including social security number. If it's a band that has a federal tax ID#, then you can put that number in, along with where the band is incorporated. Make sure it's the legal name of the performer-- in Massachusetts, it doesn't really matter, but in some states, it might
  • The date and time of the engagement, including a load-in time and sound-check time
  • The description and location of the venue
  • A statement of the compensation offered, including a specific mention of whether or not that compensation includes travel. Be sure to mention any non-monetary compensation (e.g., University Contra Dance will provide lunch on the afternoon of the engagement).
  • Who will provide sound reinforcement
  • A liability statement (check with your college about this-- usually the college will want a statement making it clear that it's the boss of any of its premises, and that it is liable for any damages in premises, etc.. One of the nice things about having a dance in a college is that the college can assume liability, so you don't have to worry about insurance if your school lets you put a statement like this in).
  • Signatures and dates of all parties (it wouldn't hurt to have both you, and a representative of the college sign it)
  • Be sure to remember that, if you sign a contract, you are legally obligated to make good on that promise. In other words, you have to pay the performer. Only write a contract if you're sure that those are the terms that you want. If you aren't sure about any of the terms, make it absolutely clear in the contract that those terms are up for future negotiation and will be written and signed separately.

If you have any questions about a contract, or want me to take a look at it, I would be happy to (I've written several performer contracts, and currently am involved with a law student organization that does advocacy work for musicians with music business legal problems). Get in touch with CDSS and we can put you in touch with David.

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